Why does matter behave this way? simple question. But the answers are often difficult to find. The mechanisms that give materials certain properties often have quantum mechanical causes, and are still difficult to observe directly in experiments. Because they happen too quickly and on too small a scale to understand all the processes in detail.
But researchers are now increasingly successful in tackling this dilemma. The solution is often what are called analog experiments. This means that some quantum phenomena in matter can be transferred to larger scales and thus easier to study.
An example of this material is graphene, a two-dimensional crystal made of carbon atoms. The atoms are arranged in a flat hexagonal lattice. If electrons move through graphene, Particles pass through energy barriers that, according to classical physics, they cannot physically overcome, Or they suddenly behave like particles of light. Graphene layers pushed on top of each other and slightly twisted against each other conduct electrical current even without resistance. Researchers want to understand what’s happening at the quantum level.
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